Obesity is defined as excessive fat accumulation that damages health of body by World Health Organisation and this disease has reached significant level around the world. Obesity treatments are divided into two as obesity surgery and medical treatments. Obesity brings serious health problems and this problem caused death of many people around the world.
Obesity treatment method suitable for an individual should be chosen by doctor and patient together.
Medical nutrition treatment: This nutrition treatment is one of the important obesity treatments. Purpose of this treatment is to bring body weight and height ratio to normal level and help gaining lifelong healthy eating habits. This treatment is planned specific to each individual and special diets are planned for sufficient and balanced eating.
Exercise treatment: Purpose of this treatment is to decrease fat tissue in the body with physical activities. Generally, exercise treatment is applied in addition to medical nutrition treatment. This treatment method ensures people with obesity to exercise 30-45 minutes per day and this treatment is based on mild regular walks. Like medical nutrition treatment, exercise treatment is designed specific to individuals and consists of programs that fits routine activities.
Medication treatment: Medication that are used in obesity treatment are not suitable for individuals who experience mild or medium level overweight. These medication should be prescribed by doctors and these medication must be safe and does not contain any addictive substances. Success of this treatment depends on combination with medical nutrition and exercise treatment and patients should regularly visit doctors for control.
Surgery can be applied to individuals with body mass index over 40 and who failed to achieve successful results with other treatment methods or to individuals with body mass index over 35 and have other health problems triggered by obesity. Since pregnancy is not recommended in the first 24 months after obesity surgery, this surgery is not suitable for individuals who plan pregnancy. Obesity surgery is applied with laparoscopic methods. However, open surgery may be applied in certain cases.
Obesity surgery is divided into two as volume restricting surgery and restricting and absorption limiting surgeries.
Sleeve Gastrectomy: Stomach tissue is dissected into tube form by using 5 holes with 1 cm diameter. This operation takes approximately 2 hours and it is conducted under general anaesthesia. Patient with smaller stomach volume feels full easily, this way fast and effective weight loss is achieved. Fast weight loss may cause skin sagging in early period. To prevent sagging, weight loss after surgery must be supported with sport and exercise.
Gastric Silicon Band: Gastric silicon band operation as one of the closed surgeries involves placing a small device with 1 cm diameter to entrance of the stomach.
Sleeve Gastric Plication: 2/3 of the stomach is plicate with closed surgical operation. Stomach is not dissected in this method. This operation helps effective and fast weight lost. If operation is supported by exercise and diet program, weight loss is observed.
Restricting and Absorption Limiting Surgeries
Stomach bypass operations are restricting and absorption limiting surgeries. There are multiple methods in this group. Most common two methods are mini gastric bypass and roux N-Y gastric bypass.
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