Obesity is defined as excessive fat accumulation that damages the health of the body by the World Health Organisation, and this disease has reached a significant level around the world. Obesity treatments are divided into two obesity surgery and medical treatments. Obesity brings serious health problems, and this problem causes the death of many people around the world.
Obesity treatment methods suitable for an individual should be chosen by doctor and patient together.
Medical nutrition treatment: This nutrition treatment is one of the essential obesity treatments. This treatment aims to bring body weight and height ratio to an average level and help gain lifelong healthy eating habits. This treatment is specific to each individual, and special diets are planned for good and balanced eating.
Exercise treatment: This treatment aims to decrease fat tissue in the body with physical activities. Generally, exercise treatment is applied in addition to medical nutrition treatment. This treatment method ensures people with obesity exercise for 30-45 minutes per day, and this treatment is based on gentle, regular walks. Like medical nutrition treatment, exercise treatment is designed specifically for individuals and consists of programs that fit routine activities.
Medication treatment: Medications used in obesity treatment are not suitable for individuals who experience mild or medium-level overweight. Doctors should prescribe this medication, and this medication must be safe and not contain any addictive substances. The success of this treatment depends on the combination of medical nutrition and exercise therapy, and patients should regularly visit doctors for control.
Surgery can be applied to individuals with body mass index over 40 and who failed to achieve successful results with other treatment methods or to individuals with body mass index over 35 and have other health problems triggered by obesity. Since pregnancy is not recommended in the first 24 months after obesity surgery, this surgery is not suitable for individuals who plan pregnancy. Obesity surgery is applied with laparoscopic methods. However, open surgery may be used in some instances.
Obesity surgery is divided into two-volume restricting surgery and restricting and absorption limiting surgeries.
- Sleeve Gastrectomy: Stomach tissue is dissected into tube form using five holes with 1 cm diameter. This operation takes approximately 2 hours and is conducted under general anesthesia. Patient with smaller stomach volume feels full quickly; this way, fast and effective weight loss is achieved. Quick weight loss may cause skin sagging in the early period. To prevent fading, weight loss after surgery must be supported with sport and exercise.
- Gastric Silicon Band: Gastric silicon band operation as one of the closed surgeries involves placing a small device with a 1 cm diameter at the entrance of the stomach.
- Sleeve Gastric Plication: 2/3 of the stomach is plicate with a closed surgical operation. The abdomen is not dissected in this method. This operation helps effective and fast weight loss. If the procedure is supported by an exercise and diet program, weight loss is observed.
Restricting and Absorption Limiting Surgeries
Stomach bypass operations are restricting and absorption limiting surgeries. There are multiple methods in this group. The most common two methods are mini gastric bypass and roux N-Y gastric bypass.
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